In 2013, immunotherapy against cancer, a treatment that assist the body’s defenses to attack tumors, was recognized by Science journal as the best scientific breakthrough of the year.
- ¿What is immuno-oncology? How is working?
- Key questions on immuno-oncology
- Detection and quantification the tumor heterogeneity
- How is working the PrimeFlow assay?
- How is working RNAview ISH cell assay?
- Immuno-oncology biomarkers
What is immuno-oncology? How is working?
Immuno-oncology is a new medical approach based on the modulation of the immune system based on the generation of specific antibodies that in a natural state eliminates the cancer cells.
Today, several antibodies have been approved as therapeutic agents around the globe, or are in late-stage clinical development. These antibodies are targeting CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and PD-L1.
These drugs have demonstrated significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with melanoma, lung cancer and kidney cancer. Nevertheless, as of today, not all patients benefit from this type of therapy.
Key questions on immuno-oncology
This is why, a multi-omics approach providing a global view of tumor heterogeneity and tumor microenvironment cal yield a more comprehensive perspective contributing to clinical advances.
Detection and quantification the tumor heterogeneity
Intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity is one of the most important obstacle in the development of a curative therapy. In general, all malignant tumors present only mutations affecting cell-cycle control (harboring mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes).
As tumor expands, it acquires additional genomic mutations. Occasionally, these mutations provide a survival advantage and results in the outgrowth of more aggressive subclones. Intra-tumor heterogeneity may lead to a biopsy not reflecting the composition of the entire tumor.
How is working PrimeFlow assay?
PrimeFlow® assay technology allows for the simultaneous detection of up to some RNA transcripts and protein in millions of single cells by flow cytometry to evaluate tumor heterogeneity.
Other applications of PrimeFlow® allows to:
- Compare RNA and protein kinetics in the same cell.
- Detect non-coding RNA in cellular subsets.
- Evaluate viral RNA in infected cells.
- Analyze mRNA expression levels when antibody selection is limited.
How is working RNAview ISH cell assay?
ViewRNA® ISH Cell Assays is based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and allows specific visualization of RNA targets in fixed cells at single-cell resolution. ViewRNA® presents an excellent specificity and a very low background.
When evaluating immunotherapies, it is essential to monitor the immune response during the treatment.
Up to now, less than 25% of stage IV metastasic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab ((anti-CTLA-4 antibody) benefit from this therapy.
Therefore, biomarkers to predict which patients may have the highest probability of benefiting from the treatment is crucial.
As well, the knowledge of the biomarkers at each stage of the cancer immunity cycle is essential to monitor response to treatment.
For example, quantification of soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) by ELISA could be a promising method to distinguish which patients are promising candidates to receive the treatment.
PocartaPlex® Immuno-Oncology Checkpoint Panel is the first commercially available multiplex immunoassay system that allows simultaneous detection of the solubles iImmune checkpoint markers that plays a crucial role in the regulation of T cells and also, those molecules have been identified as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
This panel includes 14 analytes, however multiplex technology allows customization of the panel depending on project research needs.
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